What Is the Hierarchy of Controls?

HIERARCHY-OF-CONTROLS(A tip from the “thought you’d like to know department:” There’s a free course at the end of this post that you can view or download at the bottom of this article.) 

What’s the best way to protect your workers from hazards at the workplace?

One common and effective method is to use the hierarchy of controls. To which you may ask-but what is the hierarchy of controls? That’s the focus on this article, and we’ll explain it in full detail soon. First, though, let’s set the scene.

What Is a Hazard?

In general terms, a hazard is something that has the potential to cause harm. To be less abstract, a hazard is something that can cause an injury or illness (or cause damage to a machine or equipment – but we’ll focus on the things that can cause injuries and illness right now).

There are several different kinds of hazards. We’ve listed some categories of hazards below.

Type of Hazard Description Example
Safety Hazards Common hazards that cause immediate injuries and illnesses, and may lead to death Slip, trip, and fall hazards; working from heights; electrical hazards; moving machines; mobile equipment
Biological Hazards Other life forms that can cause injury or illnesses Viruses, bacteria, mold, fungi, animal bites/stings, toxic plants, blood and other bodily fluids
Chemical and other Exposure Hazards Things that can cause harm to you when you are exposed Radiation, temperature (high or low), noise, chemicals
Ergonomic Hazards Strains and stresses on the body caused by workplace motions and body positions Poorly designed work areas, repeated motions, lifting heavy weights
Psychological or Societal Hazards Hazards caused by interacting with people and social conditions at the workplace Workplace violence, sexual harassment, stress, depression, alcohol and drug addiction

Notice that we said a hazard is something that has the potential to cause harm. While it’s important to remember that potential for harm, it’s also worth pointing out these three facts:

  • A hazard is not the same thing as the injury or illness itself
  • A hazard may never cause an injury or illness (even though it has the potential to)
  • Identifying hazards before they cause harm gives you a chance to remove or reduce the potential for harm

How to Identify Hazards

It’s important to try to identify hazards before they cause harm. If you do this, you can then eliminate or otherwise control the hazard so that the hazard never does cause harm.

There are many ways to identify hazards at the workplace. Here are a few:

Assessing and Ranking Hazards

In a perfect world, you’d eliminate or control every hazard identified at your work place.

But as you know, the world’s not perfect. So it makes sense to assess the hazards you’ve identified and then rank them in the order in which you should address them.

These are the kind of hazards you should address first:

  • Hazards that are very likely to cause harm
  • Hazards that would lead to very severe consequences

These kind of issues are typically addressed under the topics of risk management and risk assessment. Click to read more about risk management and safety.


Controlling Hazards

Now that we’ve explained what a hazard is, learned some general categories of hazards, listed some ways to identify hazards at the workplace, and touched on the assessment and ranking of hazards, let’s turn our attention to different ways to control safety hazards.

What does it mean to control a hazard?

“Controlling a hazard” is the way that safety people talk about taking a hazard and either:

  • Removing its ability to cause harm
  • Reducing its ability to cause harm

So, in everyday language, controlling a hazard is a way to make the workplace safer by making a hazardous situation less dangerous.

Are there different types of hazard controls?

Just as their are different categories of hazards, there are also different categories of hazard controls. Those hazard controls are listed in the table below.

Hazard Control Description Example
Elimination Remove a hazard from the workplace Changing a production process so that a chemical known to cause cancer is no longer used
Substitution Replace a hazard with something less hazardous Changing a formula so that instead of working with a highly explosive fluid, workers work with a fluid that’s less explosive
Engineering Control(s) Design a solution that controls the hazard at its source (requires a physical change at the workplace) Encasing a noisy machine inside a sound-proof barrier
Safe Work Practice(s) Develop specific rules and procedures for all workers to follow when working in the presence of or potentially exposed to a hazard Placing warning labels on hazardous chemicals
Administrative Control(s) Developing other work practices to protect workers from hazards Limiting the amount of time workers can work in a noisy area
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Protective clothing or equipment that protects a worker from a hazard Providing hearing protection to people who work in a noisy area

Now that you’ve seen the table with the various hazard controls, let’s discuss a few finer points.

Elimination and Substitution: You’ll sometimes see these two lumped together within the Engineering Controls.

Safe Work Practices: Some examples of safe work practices include:

  • Lockout tagout (energy control programs)
  • Confined space entry programs
  • Hazard communication

Safe Work Practices and Administrative Controls: You’ll sometimes see these grouped in as forms of Administrative Controls. However, OSHA specifically says “OSHA uses the term administrative controls to mean other measures aimed at reducing employee exposure to hazards” (other than safe work practices, that is).

Which hazard controls should you use? Which should you try first?

You shouldn’t just try any random hazard control, and you shouldn’t try them in just an order. Instead, there’s a logical progression to work through.

Here’s where the title of our article–the Hierarchy of Controls–comes into play.


What Is the Hierarchy of Controls?

It’s important to work through a logical progression when you’re considering controls for a hazard. That logical progression, from first to last, is represented by the hierarchy of controls.

Look at the diagram below. The hazard controls are listed in order. At the top is elimination. This is what you should try to do first. If elimination isn’t possible or feasible, then you continue down the list, trying substitution, then engineering controls, then administrative controls, and then finally (and only as a last resort) personal protective equipment.

Note: We’ve “collapsed” work practice controls into the administrative controls category here, but don’t forget about it.


Why are the controls in the hierarchy of controls ordered in the way they are?

The most effective controls are the ones ranked at the top. Think about it–you can’t do much better than completely eliminate a hazard, can you?

Likewise, using an engineering control (such as enclosing a noisy machine inside a sound-proof barrier) is going to be better than limiting the number of hours a worker can work in the room with the noisy machine, right?

You’ll notice that the use of personal protective equipment is at the bottom of the pyramid. That means it’s the control that should be tried last. And that’s because it’s the least effective.

HoC Effectiveness


Using More than One Control to Control a Hazard

Many times, you’ll find you can’t completely control a hazard by using just one of the controls.

What should you do? Use more than one control.

For example, you could use Substitution to remove a very hazardous chemical with a less hazardous chemical. But it may still be necessary to create Administrative Controls that limit the time a worker is near the chemical, and even then it may still be necessary to provide the worker with personal protective equipment (PPE).

Use PPE ONLY as a Last Resort

Although PPE may be one of the first things that springs to mind when you’re thinking of controlling a hazard, it should never be the first control you turn to. In fact, you should only turn to PPE as a possible control when all other controls have been exhausted and there’s still an unacceptable level of hazard.

Free Workplace Hazards and Hierarchy of Controls Course

We’ve taken the information in this article and used it to create a Workplace Hazards & the Hierarchy of Controls course. You have two options for watching and/or using this course.

The first is to just watch it by clicking the PLAY button below. You can watch it now, return and view it later, or both. So that’s easy enough.

The second is to click the download button below the course. Read the information below for more information about that.


If you want to download a free copy of the course for yourself, click the Download button below. You will get an email and from that email can download the course in a format called SCORM. That “SCORM” object will be a zipped folder–don’t try to unzip it. You can load that SCORM object into a SCORM-compliant learning management system (LMS)–that’s the only way to play the free course.

Jeffrey Dalto

Jeffrey Dalto

Jeffrey Dalto is an Instructional Designer and the Senior Learning & Development Specialist at Convergence Training. Jeff has worked in education/training for more than twenty years and in safety training for more than ten. You can follow Jeff at LinkedIn as well.

7 thoughts on “What Is the Hierarchy of Controls?

  1. Good article, interesting in that it popped up while I was pulling together information on this topic for possible use in a trial. An employee fell about 16 feet from a ladder to the ground and was unable to continue working after recovering from the injuries sustained. The very next day a different way to perform the work was provided that did not include reaching off the ladder…. The employees had asked for something to change for years, unfortunately it took the injury to get managers to react.

  2. Hi I am trying to find material videos on stored energy; this is the biggest killer or injury of people in the mining industry.
    People underestimate or do not understand stored energy sources there are so many different types of stored energy a door with a self-closing mechanism held open and then released trapping a hand or fingers,
    Would you have anything of this nature?

    Kind regards
    Stuart Stevenson

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