What Is a JHA (Job Hazard Analysis)?

JHA-blogpost(We’ve created a free downloadable guide for performing a JHA–it’s at the bottom of this post if you’d like a copy.)

Not that long ago, I read an extended discussion in a LinkedIn group titled “What is a JHA?”

The discussion included safety experts from all over the world and lots of interesting thoughts.

What it DIDN’T include was a common understanding of what a JHA is. So, leaning on some materials from our friends at OSHA as our primary source, we thought we’d introduce the concept here and provide an explanation that is acceptable and based on OSHA’s definitions and requirements. If you’ve got differing opinions about JHAs and JSAs and similar concepts, feel free to leave ’em at the bottom in the Comments section.

 

What Is a JHA (Job Hazard Analysis)?

According to OSHA’s definition, a JHA is “a technique that focuses on job tasks as a way to identify hazards before they occur.” So, the basic idea is that you:

  • break a job down into the various tasks it involves
  • identify hazards associated with each task

According to OSHA again, the JHA “focuses on the relationship between the worker, the task, the tools, and the work environment.”

Note: In the Comments section below, blog reader “Paul” notes that OSHA could have written their description of the JHA a little more smoothly, and we agree. The goal of the JHA isn’t to identify hazards before they occur–a better way to say it is that the purpose of the JHA is to identify (and then control) hazards before they do cause harm. We’re sure that’s what OSHA meant above, but of course one can’t identify a hazard if it doesn’t first occur.

Well Then, What’s a Hazard?

A hazard is something that has the potential to cause harm. Typically, this means something that can cause an injury or illness.

OSHA’s JHA document has an excellent appendix that lists various categories of hazards. We’ve duplicated that information for you below.

Hazards Hazard Descriptions
Chemical (toxic) A chemical that exposes a person by absorption through the skin, inhalation, or through the bloodstream that causes illness, disease, or death. The amount of chemical exposure is critical in determining hazardous effects. Check Safety Data Sheets (SDS) and/or OSHA 1910.1000 for chemical hazard information.
Chemical (flammable) A chemical that, when exposed to a heat ignition source, results in combustion. Typically, the lower a chemical’s flash point and boiling point, the more flammable the chemical.Check SDS for flammability information.
Chemical (corrosive) A chemical that, when it comes into contact with skin, metal, or other materials, damages the materials. Acids and bases are examples of corrosives.
Explosion(chemical reaction) Explosions caused by chemical reactions.
Explosion (over pressurization) Sudden and violent release of a large amount of gas/energy due to a significant pressure difference, such as rupture in a boiler or compressed gas cylinder.
Electrical (shock/short circuit) Contact with exposed conductors or a device that is incorrectly or inadvertently grounded, such as when a metal ladder comes into contact with power lines.60Hz alternating current (common house current) is very dangerous because it can stop the heart.
Electrical (fire) Use of electrical power that results in electrical overheating or arcing to the point of combustion or ignition of flammables, or electrical component damage.
Electrical [static/electrostatic discharge (ESD)] The moving or rubbing of wool, nylon, other synthetic fibers, and even flowing liquids can generate static electricity. This creates an excess or deficiency of electrons on the surface of material that discharges (spark) to the ground resulting in the ignition of flammables or damage to electronics or the body’s nervous system.
Electrical (loss of power) Safety-critical equipment failure as a result of loss of power.
Ergonomics (strain) Damage of tissue due to overexertion (strains and sprains) or repetitive motion.
Ergonomics (human error) A system design, procedure, or equipment that is tends to lead to human error.(For example, a switch that goes up to turn something off instead of down).
Excavation (collapse) Soil collapse in a trench or excavation as a result of improper or inadequate shoring. Soil type is critical in determining the hazard likelihood.
Fall (slips and trips) Conditions that result in falls (impacts) from height or traditional walking surfaces (such as slippery floors, poor housekeeping, uneven walking surfaces, exposed ledges, etc.)
Fire/heat Temperatures that can cause burns to the skin or damage to other organs.Fires require a heat source, fuel, and oxygen.
Mechanical/vibration (chaffing/fatigue) Vibration that can cause damage to nerve endings, or material fatigue that results in a safety-critical failure. (Examples are abraded slings and ropes, weakened hoses and belts.)
Mechanical failure Self explanatory; typically occurs when devices exceed designed capacity or are inadequately maintained.
Mechanical Skin, muscle, or body part exposed to crushing, caught-between, cutting, tearing, shearing items or equipment.
Noise Noise levels (>85 dBA 8 hr TWA) that result in hearing damage or inability to communicate safety-critical information.
Radiation (ionizing) Alpha, Beta, Gamma, neutral particles, and X-rays that cause injury (tissue damage) by ionization of cellular components.
Radiation (non-ionizing) Ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, and microwaves that cause injury to tissue by thermal or
photochemical means.
Struck-by (mass acceleration) Accelerated mass that strikes the body causing injury or death. (Examples are falling objects and projectiles.)
Struck against Injury to a body part as a result of coming into contact of a surface in which action was initiated by the person. (An example is when a screwdriver slips.)
Extreme temperatures (heat/cold) Temperatures that result in heat stress, exhaustion, or metabolic slow down such as hypothermia.
Visibility Lack of lighting or obstructed vision that results in an error or other hazard.
Weather conditions (snow/rain/wind/ice) Self-explanatory.

What Are the Benefits of Performing a JHA?

Performing JHAs at the workplace should lead to:

  • Safer work procedures
  • Fewer injuries and illnesses
  • Lower injury- and illness-related expenses
  • Increased worker productivity
  • An increased awareness of how to train employees to perform their jobs safely

For Which Jobs Should I Perform a JHA?

It’s a good idea to perform a JHA for any job. However, it’s also a good idea to prioritize some jobs ahead of others.

Considering performing JHAs first for jobs that:

  • Have a high injury and illness rate–at your location or in the industry in general
  • Have the potential to cause severe injuries and illnesses, even if that’s never happened at your location so far
  • Could lead to a severe injury or illness if only one human error occurred
  • Are  new to your location
  • Have recently changed
  • Are complex

Is a Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) the Same Thing as a Job Safety Analysis (JSA)?

This was the biggest issue of contention in that LinkedIn discussion I mentioned earlier.

Some said that the JHA and the JSA were different terms for the same thing. I was in this camp.

Others said the JHA and the JSA were different things. But these people didn’t necessarily agree how the JHA and the JSA were different. Some basically believed that the JHA was the process of identifying hazards and the JSA was the process of controlling hazards once they were identified. Others had other various explanations.

If I had to make a decision based purely on the way that OSHA defines the JHA in their document, I’d have to say that I (and those who agreed with me that the JHA and the JSA are the same thing) were wrong. And I’d now say that those who said the JHA was the process of identifying hazards and the JSA was the process of controlling hazards were right.

Although, even if I was technically wrong, if you backed me into a corner, I’d say I was right in spirit. Because while OSHA says the JHA is “a technique that focuses on job tasks as a way to identify hazards before they occur,” they also go on to say “Supervisors can use the findings of a job hazard analysis to eliminate and prevent hazards in their workplaces” and “Ideally, after you identify uncontrolled hazards, you will take steps to eliminate or reduce them to an acceptable risk level.” So I’d argue that the JHA concept includes at least an implicit assumption that you’ll work to control hazards after you recognize them. And, although I’m not a lawyer, if I played one on TV, I’d suggest that identifying a hazard and not controlling it may well put you in some legal hot water, not to mention the harm it could lead to.

But ultimately, it doesn’t really matter what you call this stuff, as long as you have a procedure for identifying and controlling hazards at work.

How Can You Get Started with a JHA?

We’ve written another in-depth post about how to perform a job hazard analysis. Check that out here. We’ve also put together a handy-dandy job hazard analysis form and guide, which you can download from the bottom of this article. These two resources should go a long way toward helping you conduct your own successful job hazard analysis.

Additional JHA Resources

After reading this article on LinkedIn, Samuella Sigmann, a lecturer and chemical hygiene officer at Appalachian State University (go Mountaineers!) told me about this document created by the American Chemical Society: Identifying and Evaluating Hazards in Research Laboratories.

Although it’s specific to research labs, it’s got a lot of stuff of general interest as well. Thanks to Samuella for the tip.

 

jha-guide-download-button

 

Jeffrey Dalto

Jeffrey Dalto

Jeffrey Dalto is an Instructional Designer and the Senior Learning & Development Specialist at Convergence Training. Jeff has worked in education/training for more than twenty years and in safety training for more than ten. You can follow Jeff at LinkedIn as well.

12 thoughts on “What Is a JHA (Job Hazard Analysis)?

    1. Avraham, thanks for the comment. I wholly or largely agree with you. And in the LinkedIn discussion I mentioned above, so did a lot of other folks.

      Others though DID suggest that the JHA is for identifying hazards, and the JSA is about controlling those hazards once identified. Others had other explanations.

      By the strict wording of the OSHA document I referenced above, the JHA doesn’t have to include controlling the hazards. But they clearly want you to. So that’s why I wind up saying that clearly at least in spirit the JHA and JSA are the same–identifying then controlling hazards.

      But, ultimately, it doesn’t matter what you call the process or processes, as long as you identify hazards and control them to make a safer workplace, right?

  1. They are the same. JSA’s were around first, then it was finally realized that “S”afety is not being analysed, rather it is the identified “H”azards that are assessed, analysed and then controls put in place. If a company still calls it a JSA, it will tell you they’re still playing catching up.
    OSHA- “… identify “hazards” before they occur” ……..this could be written much better also!

    1. Paul,

      Interesting explanation about the history of the term, with JSA coming first and JHA later replacing it. I understand your explanation, see why they would have made the change, and also see why that could cause confusion. I find your explanation pretty convincing.

      Also, you’re right, OSHA’s mention of “controlling hazards before they occur” is the written equivalent of being tongue-tied. I added a little note in the blog post at the top about that and credited you.

  2. Jeffrey,

    Thanks for a good clear concise explanation. I agree that they are essentially the same thing. You can add Job Task Analysis. There seems to be a real trend on internet blogs and chat sites to make things more complex than they need to be. I’m a big fan of K-I-S-S !

    1. Thanks, George. Yes, we try to keep things simple too, when we can.

      By Job Task Analysis, do you mean breaking the job down into its various tasks (smaller steps)? If so, do you have a specific process you like to follow for that? If that’s what we’re talking about, we did mention it, but perhaps not enough (the problem with keeping things simple, sometimes). 🙂

  3. My take on JHA-JSA is that the former is an analysis as described in the article of a task that is performed. Watch the person, analyse historic information, involve ‘experts’, be they operators, maintenance or technical folk so that systems and methods can be put in place for the routine. eg materials must arrive with sharp edges removed, use these gloves, use that tool in prescribed ways etc. These JHA’s take some time to do and are not therefore prior to the everyday operation.
    JSA (or JSEA to include Environment) can be done fairly quickly prior to starting. Are the right gloves available, is the product arriving with the burrs removed TODAY, are there any new or introduced hazards?
    I guess there are dozens of acronyms for such SSOW and while we are all on the same page our pages have slightly different words :).
    Regards
    Paul

  4. Jeff,

    In all the years that I’ve been working in safety, it’s hard to find people who are not only instructional designers but also have a solid background in safety. Well done and thank you.

    1. Tim, that’s nice of you to say. Many thanks.

      I’m no safety/health expert, but I’ve been working with experts like yourself and studying up for some time. It definitely helps as an ID to have some familiarity with the topics and ideas.

      Happy holidays to you and thanks for the nice words. We hope you continue to find some things of value here.

      Cheers.

  5. Jeff,
    I have been learning and working in safety department and we do the JHA by ourselves and it’s hard to find people who are not only instructional designers but also have a solid background in safety. Well done and thank you Jeff.

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