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Based on: Industry Standards and Best Practices

Languages: English

Sample Transcript

Wood is the main source of the fibers used in the large scale industrial production of paper-based products. Paper can be made from other plant fibers such as papyrus, cotton, and flax but wood has much greater availability. Wood fibers come from many different regions and have unique characteristics based on the tree species and the climate they grow in. The various characteristics help developed the properties of different paper products. For example, tissue paper utilizes the soft feeling from thin, flexible eucalyptus fibers, while cardboard boxes are made of strong, bulky stiff fibers like Douglas fir. Pulping breaks down wood chips into individual fibers. The Kraft pulping process uses digestors to process wood chips at high temperature and pressure with a strong acolyte.

Wood Properties and Chip Quality Testing

Training Time: 26 minutes

Wood is the main source of the fibers used in the large-scale industrial production of paper-based products. Paper can be made from other plant fibers such as papyrus, cotton, and flax, but wood has much greater availability. The various characteristics of these plant fibers help develop the properties of different paper products. This course describes the sources of fibers, the various characteristics of these fibers, how they are tested, and their value or impact in the manufacturing of pulp and paper.

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Trees have two types of wood. The sapwood is the living outer ring, and the heartwood is the dead, darker center of the tree.

Trees have two types of wood. The sapwood is the living outer ring, and the heartwood is the dead, darker center of the tree.

Accurately measuring the wood chip moisture is important for applying the correct amount of chemical in the digester.

Accurately measuring the wood chip moisture is important for applying the correct amount of chemical in the digester.

Screens with different size openings are used to separate the chips and ensure the digester is supplied with uniform, properly sized chips.

Screens with different size openings are used to separate the chips and ensure the digester is supplied with uniform, properly sized chips.

Learning Objectives

  • Differentiate between "earlywood" and "latewood" fibers with regards to pulp properties
  • Differentiate between "heartwood" and "sapwood," including the impact on the pulping process
  • Differentiate between hardwood and softwood in regards to wood composition, pulping, and pulp properties
  • Identify and describe key chip quality parameters, associated testing, and the impact on the pulping process
  • Identify and describe woodyard safety hazards and guidelines
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Wood and Chip Properties and Quality Testing FAQs

How do tree growing conditions affect chip properties?
Trees in temperate climates grow slow during cold or dry periods and grow rapidly during wet and warm times. Fibers that grow fast are thinner and more flexible. Trees that grow in tropical climates where it is warm and wet all year, tend to have more uniform fibers.

What are some important chip quality parameters?
Wood species, chip size distribution, moisture content, contamination level, and chip age are all important wood chip quality parameters.

What are some properties of softwood fibers?
Softwood fibers are long and bulky. They provide strength to paper.

What are some properties of hardwood fibers?
Hardwood fibers are short, thin, flexible fibers that provide smoothness and opacity to paper.

What are the different chip size categories?
Chips can be grouped into overs, accepts, pins, and fines.

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