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The use of different furnishes in different layers gives the paper or boardmaker greater flexibility. Multi-ply forming is often used to produce paper or board grades with the required performance characteristics using lower cost fibers in the middle of the sheet. As an example, for printing and writing grades, shorter fibers and fillers that enhance surface properties and printability of the sheet can be used in the outer layers, and longer fibers can be used in the middle to give the sheet the necessary strength characteristics. If a cheap source of long fiber can be found, this can lower production costs. Additionally, expensive high-performance fillers like titanium dioxide can be concentrated on the outside surfaces of the sheet.