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Industry Standards and Best Practices
This course describes the role of the headbox in the papermaking process, and then defines the critical features of the stock jet geometry for a hydraulic headbox installed on a modern tissue machine or twin-wire paper machine. It discusses the importance of sheet formation and then describes the stock jet geometries that affect sheet formation and other sheet properties. Lastly, it covers some common headbox adjustments and other equipment settings that can affect the stock jet geometry.
It is important that the stock be uniformly distributed in the machine direction (MD) and the cross-machine direction (CD)
The jet-to-wire ratio is equal to the stock jet speed divided by the wire speed
Fiber floccing should be minimized as this negatively affects formation, which affects the appearance and performance of the sheet
Why is sheet formation so important?Formation is important because it affects the appearance and performance of the sheet. It affects appearance in that a well-formed sheet will look very even, and it affects performance because the distribution of fibers directly affects the distribution of fiber-to-fiber bonds which hold the sheet together. If formation is poor, there will be thin, weak spots which will fail under load.
What is the "stock jet geometry"?The term "stock jet geometry" refers to a set of measurable, observable physical characteristics of the stock jet after it exits the headbox.
Which stock jet geometries are important for a roll type gap former?Jet length, jet angle, and jet impingement are all important.
Why is it important to have a short free jet length?A short free jet length reduces the time available for the fibers to reflocculate before the sheet sets, and if there are multiple layers, it minimizes mixing between the different layer furnishes.
Should the angles between the jet and the fabrics be low or high?The jet angles should be low because if the jet is directed too much into either roll, water can start "pumping" around the roll, which can disrupt sheet formation.
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