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Hydraulic Headboxes - Stock Jet Geometry for Fourdriniers

SKU: C-632Duration: 26 Minutes Certificate Included

PPV format perfect for individual users.

Get immediate access to this interactive eLearning course online. Must be used within 30 days, expires 48 hours after launch.

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Includes printable documents and Convergence Video Player for Windows systems. Content expires after 1 year.

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Course Details


Training Time: 26 minutes

 Mobile Compatible

Based on: Industry Standards and Best Practices


  • English

A hydraulic headbox is designed to deliver a uniform, low consistency stock stream to the Fourdrinier wire. It is important to monitor the geometry of the stock jet because it greatly impacts the appearance and performance of the sheet. Only by understanding the variables that affect the stock jet, and how the jet geometry affects sheet properties, can one begin to make adjustments to the headbox to optimize sheet quality.

At the end of this module, you will be able to:

  • Describe the purpose of the headbox in the papermaking process
  • Define the terms "hydraulic," "jet impingement angle," "jet landing point," "sheet formation," "jet-to-wire ratio," and "rush/drag"
  • Describe the impact of stock jet geometry and sheet formation on the appearance and strength properties of the sheet
  • Identify and describe common headbox adjustments and settings that affect the stock jet geometry
  • Describe the effects of the slice opening and fan pump speed on stock jet geometry

The following key questions are answered in this module:

What is the jet impingement angle?
On a Fourdrinier machine, it is the angle between the stock jet and the wire as the jet strikes the wire

Why is the stock jet geometry so important?
Stock jet geometry is important because it affects sheet formation, and sheet formation affects both the appearance and the performance of the sheet

What is the difference between "pressure forming" and "velocity forming"?
Pressure forming occurs with very high jet angles, where the stock jet is forced down into the wire. Velocity forming occurs with low jet angles, and the stock jet lands more gently on the wire.

What is the "jet-to-wire ratio"?
It is the ratio of the stock jet speed and the wire speed, and it greatly affects the orientation of the fibers in the sheet

What is the "L/b ratio" and why is it important?
It is the ratio of the horizontal spacing to the vertical spacing between the slice lip and apron lip. It is important because it affects the jet landing point and the jet impingement angle.

Below is a transcript of the video sample provided for this module:

If the stock jet speed is greater than the wire speed, the jet-to-wire ratio is greater than one. In this case, the fibers will tend to align in the cross machine direction increasing the sheet strength in that direction. Sheet formation and sheet appearance are both impacted by the jet-to-wire ratio. When the jet speed and wire speed are almost equal, when the ratio is close to one, the fibers will be well distributed and randomly oriented in the sheet. Somewhere around a ratio of one, the machine direction and cross machine direction strengths will be about equal, creating a square sheet. Formation and appearance are both positively affected by the squaring process.

Use the additional resources and links below to learn more about this topic:

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