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Based on: Industry Standards and Best Practices

Languages: English

Sample Transcript

The first water treatment step is screening. If water comes from a surface source, it is put through a relatively large opening screen or mesh to remove trash, fish, and any other large items that would interfere with further processing. Next, the water is sent to a large clarifier with a long retention time. As the water flows slowly through the clarifier, the larger suspended solids are given a chance to settle out and separate by gravity. Clarifiers usually have a mechanism to slowly and automatically remove settled solids.

Fresh Water Systems

Training Time: 32 minutes

Water is used in virtually every step of the pulping and papermaking process. It is used for cooking, bleaching, washing and fiber transport. It is used for steam creation and cooling. This module covers the major sources of mill raw water, the contaminants commonly found in raw water, as well as raw water testing and treatment.

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Water has a simple molecular structure with the chemical formula H2O.

Turbidity is the measure of the optical clarity of water. In this test, a calibrated light beam is shone through a water sample in a standard sized cell. The amount of light scattered to the side by the particulate matter in the sample cell is measured. Th

Multiple parallel sand filters are used for filtering. These are beds of fine sand held within containment vessels. Contaminated water introduced into the top of these vessels flows down through the sand.

Learning Objectives

  • Explain how water is used in a mill
  • List the major sources of mill raw water
  • List the major classes of contaminants in raw water
  • Identify and describe some of the important tests run on raw water
  • List the common major treatment steps for raw water treatment
  • Identify and describe the additional treatment steps required for boiler feedwater
  • Identify and describe the safety hazards and safe work practices associated with fresh/raw water systems
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Fresh Water Systems FAQs

How is water used in a mill?
Water is used in nearly every step of the pulping and papermaking processes. It's used to cook and bleach fibers; it's used to recover cooking chemicals; it's used to wash fibers; it's used to transport fibers in a slurry; it's used to suspend fibers and distribute them on a machine to create a sheet or board; and it's used for heating and cooling.

What is the molecular structure of water?
Water has a simple molecular structure with the chemical formula H2O. One molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded, at an angle to each other, to a single oxygen atom.

What are two primary sources of industrial water at mills?
Industrial water sources are broadly categorized as either surface water or groundwater.

What are two general classes of impurities found in water?
Suspended solids and dissolved solids.

What are some commonly run tests on water at mills?
Total suspended solids (TPS), turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, hardness, biological oxygen demand (BOD), temperature, and temperature.

What are some common water treatment steps?
Screening, clarification, filtration, demineralization, and deaeration.

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