Common Physical Tests for Paper and Board

SKU: C-751Duration: 26 Minutes

Pay-per-view (PPV) format perfect for individual users.

Get immediate access to this interactive eLearning course online. Must be used within 30 days, expires 48 hours after launch.


Great for trainers or groups who need unlimited online access to multiple courses. Available in two ways:

Paper Properties and Testing Series (Details)
Includes 5 courses for $299/year.

Paper Library (Details)
Includes 92 courses for $1,499/year.

Ideal for corporate licensing and high volume users.

Get Convergence courses into your current LMS to track and report employee training. Or contact us to learn more about the advantages of licensing our courses with the Convergence LMS.

Course Details


Training Time: 26 minutes

Compatibility: Desktop, Tablet, Phone

Based on: Industry Standards and Best Practices

Languages: English, Portuguese

Depending on the grade and end use, different tests are performed to assess the quality of the paper or board being produced on a machine. Physical tests assess physical properties of the sheet, such as density, thickness, and different kinds of strength. Common physical tests include basis weight or grammage, moisture content, caliper, density, bulk, smoothness, porosity, stiffness, tensile strength, burst strength, tear strength, and folding endurance. This module will introduce some common physical tests, followed by a discussion on the importance of sample collection and conditioning, sheet formation, and moisture content.

Learning Objectives

At the end of this module, you will be able to:

  • List common criteria used to differentiate between paper and board grades
  • List some common paper and board grades
  • Describe basis weight testing, including principles and units
  • Describe moisture testing, including principles and units
  • Describe caliper, density and bulk testing, including principles and units
  • Describe smoothness testing, including principles and units
  • Describe porosity testing, including principles and units
  • Identify the organizations which have established standard testing, sampling, and conditioning procedures
  • Explain how sheet formation and moisture content can affect test results
  • Describe the importance of standardized sampling techniques and sample conditioning

Key Questions

The following key questions are answered in this module:

Which standardized test methods are most commonly used in the U.S.?
The standards managed by the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI) are most common.

What is basis weight?
Basis weight refers to the weight in pounds of a ream of paper, where a ream is defined as 500 base size sheets. Different grades have different base sizes so basis weight cannot be directly compared across grades. Grammage (grams per square meter) is another way to express the weight per area, and values can be directly compared.

What is caliper?
Caliper is the thickness measurement of paper or board.

How is smoothness measured?
There are many different ways to measure smoothness (optical, friction, profile measurements, ink contact area) but air flow measurements are must commonly used.

Why is porosity measured?
Porosity determines the ability of a sheet to absorb ink or water, protect certain products, or act as a filter.

Sample Video Transcript

Below is a transcript of the video sample provided for this module:

Porosity is a measure of the air resistance or air permeability of a sheet. This property effects the ability of a sheet to package and protect certain products, to absorb liquids like water and ink, or to act as a filter. Various instruments have been developed and are used, and most of them work in one of two ways. They either measure the length of time it takes for a specific volume of air at a controlled pressure to pass through a defined area the sheet. Or they measure the air flow rate through an area of the sheet while maintaining a constant pressure difference.

Customer Q&A

I would like to have several employees take multiple courses. How can I set that up?

We're in the process of making bulk course and multiple user purchases easier. But for now, you can order multiple courses and contact us with details on who you'd like to assign courses to. We can set up each user's training plan and make sure everyone gets the eLearning assignments they need.

Can I get a free full-length preview of a course to see what this course covers?

While we do our best to offer details on course contents, we don't normally offer full-length previews. But please contact us with more details for a better understanding of what your organizaton needs and how we can help.

Do I get a certificate when I complete a course?

Yes. All of our courses allow you to print a completion certficate upon successfully passing the integrated test at the end of each eLearning course.

How do I log in to take a course that I have already paid for?

You'll receive an email with login details moments after you purchase your pay-per-view (PPV) course. Just click the login link and enter the user name and password provided.

Do you have courses in different languages?

Yes. While all of our courses are originally produced in English, we develop many courses in a growing number of languages, including Chinese, Dutch, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Tamil, and Thai. Available languages are normally displayed in the Course Details section on each course page.
Added to Cart! Click here to view your cart.