Calendering - Wet Stack

SKU: C-663Duration: 16 Minutes

Pay-per-view (PPV) format perfect for individual users.

Get immediate access to this interactive eLearning course online. Must be used within 30 days, expires 48 hours after launch.

Language:  English

Great for in-person classroom training or as an alternative to DVD.

Includes printable documents and Convergence Video Player for Windows systems. Content expires after 1 year.

Language:  English

Great for trainers or groups who need unlimited online access to multiple courses. Available in two ways:

Dry End Equipment Series (Details)
Includes 11 courses for $299/year.

Paper Library (Details)
Includes 92 courses for $1,499/year.

Ideal for corporate licensing and high volume users.

Get Convergence courses into your current LMS to track and report employee training. Or contact us to learn more about the advantages of licensing our courses with the Convergence LMS.

 Need help deciding? Compare delivery formats.

Course Details


Training Time: 16 minutes

Compatibility: Desktop, Tablet, Phone

Based on: Industry Standards and Best Practices

Languages: English

Calendering is a process used in the production of paper and board to smooth the surface and control the caliper or thickness of the sheet. Some sheet compaction or pressing also occurs. Wet stack calendering uses moisture to enhance calendering results. Wet calender stacks must be followed by dryers to remove the added moisture before they can be wound onto the reel.

Learning Objectives

At the end of this module, you will be able to:

  • Describe the purpose of wet stack calenders
  • Identify the safety hazards associated with calender stacks
  • Describe the wet stack calendering process
  • Identify and describe the main components of a wet calender stack
  • Describe the design and operation of deflection compensated rolls in wet stacks

Key Questions

The following key questions are answered in this module:

Why is it called "wet stack" calendering?
In a wet stack, water is added to the sheet surface in one or more nips. This added moisture improves the transfer of the smooth calender roll surface to the surface of the sheet, so it enhances calendering results.

How is the water applied to the sheet on a wet calender stack?
"Water boxes" are positioned at one or more nips. They contain heated water which contacts the sheet briefly to moisture only the sheet surface, in order to concentrate the calendering action on the surface.

Can anything be added to the water that is used to moisten the sheet?
Dyes, lubricants, and binders like starch can be added to the water going to the water boxes, if desired.

How are wet calender stacks loaded?
Stack loading is typically provided by the weight of the rolls, which means that the nip loads increase from top to bottom. Jacking bolts or compensators may be provided on the ends of the upper rolls to adjust edge loads, if necessary.

Are variable crown rolls used in wet calender stacks?
To maintain uniform cross-machine nip pressure profiles in a wet stack, the king roll and queen roll (if there is one) are either fixed crown or variable crown rolls. Fixed crown rolls are designed for a single nip loading, while variable crown rolls can be adjusted for different nip loadings.

Sample Video Transcript

Below is a transcript of the video sample provided for this module:

Dry calendaring or hard nip calendaring can be done with two or more rolls and one or more nips. This type of calendaring is detailed in a separate training module. Wet stack calendaring is typically done with three or more rolls and two or more nips. In a wet stack, water is added to the sheet surface one or more nips using water boxes. Uniform nip pressure profiles are critical to prevent water pockets from forming, which can cause sheet breaks. The added moisture and applied nips pressure develop good smoothness of the sheet. Dyes, lubricants, and binders like starch can be added to the water boxes if desired. After the wet stack, the sheet must be dried before it can be wound onto the reel.

Customer Q&A

I would like to have several employees take multiple courses. How can I set that up?

We're in the process of making bulk course and multiple user purchases easier. But for now, you can order multiple courses and contact us with details on who you'd like to assign courses to. We can set up each user's training plan and make sure everyone gets the eLearning assignments they need.

Can I get a free full-length preview of a course to see what this course covers?

While we do our best to offer details on course contents, we don't normally offer full-length previews. But please contact us with more details for a better understanding of what your organizaton needs and how we can help.

Do I get a certificate when I complete a course?

Yes. All of our courses allow you to print a completion certficate upon successfully passing the integrated test at the end of each eLearning course.

How do I log in to take a course that I have already paid for?

You'll receive an email with login details moments after you purchase your pay-per-view (PPV) course. Just click the login link and enter the user name and password provided.

Do you have courses in different languages?

Yes. While all of our courses are originally produced in English, we develop many courses in a growing number of languages, including Chinese, Dutch, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Tamil, and Thai. Available languages are normally displayed in the Course Details section on each course page.
Added to Cart! Click here to view your cart.