Calendering - Wet Stack

SKU: C-663Duration: 16 Minutes Certificate Included

Pay-per-view (PPV) format perfect for individual users.

Get immediate access to this interactive eLearning course online. Must be used within 30 days, expires 48 hours after launch.

Great for in-person classroom training or as an alternative to DVD.

Includes printable documents and Convergence Video Player for Windows systems. Content expires after 1 year.

Ideal for corporate licensing and volume users who also need administrative tracking and reporting on training.

Get this interactive eLearning course into your LMS or learn how you can leverage our LMS to deliver training to your workforce.

Need multiple courses or have lots of users? Just let us know a little more about what you need and we’ll get you some great volume pricing.

 Need help deciding? Compare delivery formats.

Course Details


Training Time: 16 minutes

Compatibility: Desktop, Tablet, Phone

Based on: Industry Standards and Best Practices

Languages: English

Calendering is a process used in the production of paper and board to smooth the surface and control the caliper or thickness of the sheet. Some sheet compaction or pressing also occurs. Wet stack calendering uses moisture to enhance calendering results. Wet calender stacks must be followed by dryers to remove the added moisture before they can be wound onto the reel.

At the end of this module, you will be able to:

  • Describe the purpose of wet stack calenders
  • Identify the safety hazards associated with calender stacks
  • Describe the wet stack calendering process
  • Identify and describe the main components of a wet calender stack
  • Describe the design and operation of deflection compensated rolls in wet stacks

The following key questions are answered in this module:

Why is it called "wet stack" calendering?
In a wet stack, water is added to the sheet surface in one or more nips. This added moisture improves the transfer of the smooth calender roll surface to the surface of the sheet, so it enhances calendering results.

How is the water applied to the sheet on a wet calender stack?
"Water boxes" are positioned at one or more nips. They contain heated water which contacts the sheet briefly to moisture only the sheet surface, in order to concentrate the calendering action on the surface.

Can anything be added to the water that is used to moisten the sheet?
Dyes, lubricants, and binders like starch can be added to the water going to the water boxes, if desired.

How are wet calender stacks loaded?
Stack loading is typically provided by the weight of the rolls, which means that the nip loads increase from top to bottom. Jacking bolts or compensators may be provided on the ends of the upper rolls to adjust edge loads, if necessary.

Are variable crown rolls used in wet calender stacks?
To maintain uniform cross-machine nip pressure profiles in a wet stack, the king roll and queen roll (if there is one) are either fixed crown or variable crown rolls. Fixed crown rolls are designed for a single nip loading, while variable crown rolls can be adjusted for different nip loadings.

Below is a transcript of the video sample provided for this module:

Dry calendaring or hard nip calendaring can be done with two or more rolls and one or more nips. This type of calendaring is detailed in a separate training module. Wet stack calendaring is typically done with three or more rolls and two or more nips. In a wet stack, water is added to the sheet surface one or more nips using water boxes. Uniform nip pressure profiles are critical to prevent water pockets from forming, which can cause sheet breaks. The added moisture and applied nips pressure develop good smoothness of the sheet. Dyes, lubricants, and binders like starch can be added to the water boxes if desired. After the wet stack, the sheet must be dried before it can be wound onto the reel.

Use the additional resources and links below to learn more about this topic:

Customer Q&A

Ask a Question

Sorry, we're missing some information

How do I log in to watch a video that I have already paid for?

Easy! Moments after you purchase your pay-per-view (PPV) course, you'll receive an email with login details. Just click the link and log in with your user name and password and you're on your way!

I would like to have some of my employees take 5 of your driving related courses, how can i set this up?

We're in the process of making bulk purchases and purchases for multiple users easier. But for now, you can order multiple courses and just let us know who you'd like to assign courses to. With an email for each user, we can set up their training plans and make sure everyone gets the eLearning assignments they need.

How can I get your paper-making courses for free?

Well, we can't blame you for asking... And while we're a for-profit company, there are situations with students and certain educational organizations where we can help out with a selection of eLearning. However, our online courses are extremely economical. And our paper industry courses are in very high demand. So, without knowing more about your situation, we think you'll get loads of value from the $39 you'll spend on any of our premium courses.

Do you have eLearning in Portuguese?

Yes, we do! And in addition to primary English narration, we produce many courses in a growing number of languages, including Spanish, Chinese, Dutch, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Russian, Tamil, and Thai.

I'm unemployed, but I really like your eLearning. Do I get a certificate when I complete a course?

Yes! All of our courses allow you to print a completion certficate upon successfully passing the integrated test at the end of eLearning. In the future, we'll have badges for you to use in your LinkedIn profiles.
Added to Cart! Click here to view your cart.