Teaching Attitudes: The Affective Domain of Learning and Learning Objectives

Instructional Design Basics

[This is the eighth in a series of posts about learning objectives. We’ve now compiled all the posts into a single downloadable guide to writing learning objectives if you want to check that out.]

As we mentioned in a previous post, there are three different kinds of learning: learning about things you can “know,” learning about things you can “do,” and learning about things you “feel.” We will refer to these as knowledge, skills, and attitudes, or “KSAs” for short.

In this post, we’re going to consider the “attitudes” domain more closely. The information below is based on the theories of Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia (1973), and it relies greatly on explanations of those theories that appear Don Clark’s well known “Big Dog Little Dog” instructional design blog. Check out Clark’s material on learning domains to read more about this and to learn about alternate versions of this hierarchy and other learning hierarchies.

You can use this information to create a more effective workforce training program.

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Making Sure Your Training is Effective-Kirkpatrick’s Four Levels of Evaluation

Instructional Design Basics

Companies pour a lot of money into training. And of course, they hope that money is well spent.

That would mean that the training worked, in casual terms. Or, to be more specific, that employees learned things, developed new skills, and changed their behaviors at work, and those changed behaviors ultimately contributed to progress toward a business goal, such as increased workplace safety, higher production efficiency, increased sales revenue, lower total costs, the roll-out of a new product, or similar goals.

But exactly how do you know if your training was effective?

To figure this out, Donald Kirkpatrick came up with something now called Kirkpatrick’s Four Levels of Training Evaluation. There are other methods to do this, but Kirkpatrick’s Four Levels are a widely used method. They became very popular after he published his book Evaluating Training Programs in 1994.

We’ll learn more about the four-level Kirkpatrick evaluation in this article.

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Teaching Skills: The Psychomotor Domain of Learning and Learning Objectives

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[This is the the seventh in a series of posts about learning objectives. We’ve now compiled all the posts into a single downloadable guide to writing learning objectives if you want to check that out.]

As we mentioned in an earlier post, Bloom believed there are three different kinds of learning: learning about things you can “know,” learning about things you can “do,” and learning about things you “feel.” We will refer to these as knowledge, skills, and attitudes, or “KSAs” for short.

In this post, we’re going to consider the “skills” domain more closely, looking at six different levels of skill. The information below is based on the theories of R.H. Dave (1975), and draws from explanations of those theories that appear at Don Clark’s well-known “Big Dog Little Dog” instructional design blog. Check out Clark’s material on learning domains to read more about this hierarchy and to learn about alternate versions of this hierarchy by Simpson and Harrow if you’re interested. I’ve written about Dave’s hierarchy because it’s the one that seems most useful to me, but the others are also popular, well-known, and well-regarded.

This information can help you create a more effective workforce training program.

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How Video Can Help Us Learn: A Fun Example

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Every so often, when we see some effective training material during our daily lives outside the office, or when we see something that explains things nicely, we like to share it here.

Some years ago, we found the video below from a story on the National Public Radio (NPR) website about an informational video that explained a physical process. The video was created by a college student named Dan Quinn. Mr. Quinn has a YouTube channel where he publishes videos he creates, and one is a really interesting piece on why wine “cries” in a glass.

We decided to write more about that video for our “things from everyday life that related to job training” series below.

For more articles in this series, check out this article on visual design and airline tickets and this article on humor in pre-flight safety videos.

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Teaching “Knowledge”: The Cognitive Domain of Learning and Learning Objectives

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[This is the the fifth in a series of posts about learning objectives. We’ve now compiled all the posts into a single downloadable guide to writing learning objectives if you want to check that out.]

As we mentioned in the last post about learning objectives, you can think about three different kinds of learning: learning about things you can “know,” learning about things you can “do,” and learning about things you “feel.” These are called the Cognitive domain, the Psychomotor domain, and the Affective domain. Because we try to avoid $25 words here at the Convergence Training blog, we will also refer to them as Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes. But we didn’t make that up–it’s a somewhat common way to think of this, and trainers often call these “KSAs” for short.

In this post, we’re going to consider the “knowledge” domain of learning more closely–things you can know. We’ll find that there are actually six different levels of knowledge, from simplest to most complex, and we will give a list of behaviors that learners must perform to show they’ve mastered each type of knowledge. This will help you pick the verb you’ll use when writing learning objectives dealing with knowledge. We’ll look at the Skills and Attitudes domains in following posts.

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Benjamin Bloom’s Learning Objectives Taxonomy: Cognitive (Knowledge), Psychomotor (Skills), and Affective (Attitudes)

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[This is the fifth in a series of posts about learning objectives. We’ve now compiled all the posts into a single downloadable guide to writing learning objectives if you want to check that out.]

If you search the Internet for “learning objectives,” you’ll run into the name Benjamin Bloom quickly enough.

That’s because Bloom gave us a handy way to think of different kinds of learning and the learning objectives to write for each. It’s not the only way, and it’s been revised by his followers since he developed it originally, but it’s a help when you’re writing your objectives.

Before we begin explaining his theories to you (over the next four blog posts), take a moment and think of learning. Is all learning alike, or do we sometimes learn different “kinds” of things? For example, consider learning how materials flow through a machine, learning how to weld a metal seam, and learning why it’s important to follow safety rules. Are these the same kinds of learning, or are they different?

If you agree that we learn different types of things, you’re halfway to understanding Bloom’s three “domains” of learning and learning objectives.

Once you’ve read all this stuff on Bloom’s learning objectives for different types of learning, you may also find our Different Types of Training for Different Types of Learning article interesting.

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Machine Guarding Information: OSHA Citation Data, Free Online Word Game, Free Checklist, FAQs & More

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As you probably know, OSHA publishes a list list of the ten most commonly cited standard violations every year. And every year, 1910.212 (Machine Guarding) is on the list.

As a result, we’ve pulled together some machine guarding resources to help you use machine guarding more properly, to comply with OSHA machine guarding rules, and to avoid those nasty OSHA fines. And don’t forget to download our free OSHA General Industry Machine Guarding Checklist, too.

Let us know if you’ve got some other resources you’d suggest. The comments field awaits.

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Creating Visuals for Training Materials: Connie Malamed’s Book “Visual Language for Designers”

Not that long ago, we recommended the book “Design for How People Learn” by Julie Dirksen. Now we’ve got another book recommendation for you—Connie Malamed’s “Visual Language for Designers: Principles for Creating Graphics that People Understand.”

First, an admission. We’re HUGE Connie Malamed fans. She’s got a great instructional design blog and a second blog for visual design. She’s got a neat instructional design app. She’s pleasant, sociable, and informative in social media circles. And yes, she’s got a really great book, too.

This article is a general overview/review of Malamed’s book. To see the ideas in her book “put into action,” check out this article: 25 Graphic Design Tips for e-Learning.

Which brings us back to the book recommendation.

Convergence Training provides learning management systems and e-learning courses, primarily for industrial and manufacture ring companies. Contact us if you have questions.

And feel free to download any of the free guides below while you’re here:

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What Is SCORM?

If you’re interested in e-learning, you’ve probably heard of or seen the acronym SCORM.

To my eyes, it looks like it should be the name of a Star Trek enemy—kind of like the Borg Collective. But nope, it’s a set of rules, standards, and specifications for making e-learning modules and learning management systems (LMSs) work together.

Read on if you’re curious for more information.

What Does SCORM Do?

SCORM ensures that e-learning courses can be imported into, assigned, played, completed, and tracked from a learning management system (LMS). That’s assuming that both the e-learning course and the LMS are SCORM-compliant.

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What Is a Learning Management System (LMS)?

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Many people in learning and development are quite familiar with learning management systems (LMSs). Maybe you use one now, or maybe you’ve used one for years.

On the other hand, there are plenty of people who aren’t familiar with an LMS, haven’t used one, or don’t know what an LMS is. Maybe you’re new to training. Maybe your role in training has never involved using an LMS. Or maybe your company still hasn’t adopted an LMS, and you’re still administering your training through an excruciating series of databases, network folders, SharePoint, Excel spreadsheets, and paper-based training records in manila envelopes stored in metal filing cabinets in various rooms though out the office. 🙁

If the paragraph above describes your situation, here’s a 100-level primer explaining what an LMS is. We’ve also included some additional links to other LMS-related articles. Hope this helps get you up to speed quickly.

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Book Review: Design for How People Learn by Julie Dirksen

If you’ve poked around in the field of instructional design and/or learning and development for even a short while, the chances are pretty good that you’ve heard of Julie Dirksen’s book Design for How People Learn. And, the chances that you’ve heard nice things about Dirksen’s book are equally good. Design for How People Learn is very well regarded and seems to be becoming a bit of a modern classic in the field. I was a little behind the times in reading it, but I’m happy to say I’ve now finished it and am ready to join the people saying nice things about it.

First, a little about Julie Dirksen. She’s an instructional designer with a really nice blog called Usable Learning (www.usablelearning.com). The blog has lots of helpful information, and Dirksen frequently responds to reader comments there. She’s been kind enough to respond to mine in the past, for example.

Convergence Training is a training solutions provider that makes many libraries of off-the-shelf e-learning courses, several different learning management systems (LMSs) for companies of different sizes, industries, and training needs, and more. Contact us to learn more and set up a demo.

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When a Job Aid Is Better than Job Training

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Have you ever read an article that discusses job aids, workforce training, mobile training, parenting, and pumping gas into a car? If not, grab a seat, because you’re about to.

By way of background, companies sometimes create training that their employees don’t need, that won’t fix the problem, or that isn’t worth the cost. For example, you can spend a lot of time and money trying to train your employees to memorize 50 codes—which your employees probably won’t successfully memorize despite your best efforts—or you can create a document that lists all the codes, put that document where your employees need it at work, and give them a very short training session about how to use that list.

That document with the codes on it is an example of a job aid. Have you got a Post-It note by your computer telling you how to do something? That’s a job aid too. And with the ease of recording short, instructional videos at work, and the fact that so many people have mobile devices and smart phones they can use to watch those videos as needed at work as well, you can easily imagine using videos as job aids as well.

Sometimes, a job aid is all a person needs. And they can be much more effective than training. Let’s look at an example from my real life outside the office.
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