Benjamin Bloom’s Learning Objectives: Cognitive (Knowledge), Psychomotor (Skills), and Affective (Attitudes)

[This is the fifth in a series of posts about learning objectives. We’ve now compiled all the posts into a single downloadable guide to writing learning objectives if you want to check that out.]

If you search the Internet for “learning objectives,” you’ll run into the name Benjamin Bloom quickly enough.

That’s because he gave us a handy way to think of different kinds of learning and the learning objectives to write for each. It’s not the only way, and it’s been revised by his followers since he developed it originally, but it’s a help when you’re writing your objectives.

Before we begin explaining his theories to you (over the next four blog posts), take a moment and think of learning. Is all learning alike, or do we sometimes learn different “kinds” of things? For example, consider learning how materials flow through a machine, learning how to weld a metal seam, and learning why it’s important to follow safety rules. Are these the same kinds of learning, or are they different?

If you agree that we learn different types of things, you’re halfway to understanding Bloom’s three “domains” of learning and learning objectives.

Bloom’s Three Domains (or Categories) of Learning and Learning Objectives

Knowledge: Bloom actually called this the “Cognitive” domain, but we’ll stick with conversational language and call it knowledge. This includes things like recalling or recognizing facts, understanding concepts, using concepts in new circumstances, and more.

Click here to learn more about the so-called “cognitive” learning objectives, or just continue reading the linked articles in this series.

Skills: Bloom called this the “Psychomotor” domain, but we think “skills” rolls off the tongue a little better. This includes physical skills and abilities.

Click here to learn more about psychomotor learning objectives.

Attitudes: Bloom called this the “Affective” domain. It includes values, feelings, motivations, and more.

Click here to learn more about  affective learning objectives.

So what’s the point, you ask? Well, your goal as a training developer is to help people learn. To do that, it’s a good idea to begin by identifying the type of learning the learners will do. Is it something they’ll think/know/understand, a skill or ability they’ll develop, or an emotion or value you want them to hold? Identifying the category (or domain) of learning can help you write your learning objective correctly. In particular, it will help you choose the “behavior” or “verb” part of the objective (see our ABCDs of Learning Objectives post if this isn’t familiar).

And that leads us to the teaser for our three posts about each of these domains and our free guide to creating learning objectives.

For the three posts, just click the links a little higher in this article. For the free guide to creating learning objectives, just click the button immediately below.

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How to Write Learning Objectives

All the basics about writing learning objectives for training materials.

Download Free Guide

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Jeffrey Dalto

Jeffrey Dalto

Jeffrey Dalto is an Instructional Designer and the Senior Learning & Development Specialist at Convergence Training. Jeff has worked in education/training for more than twenty years and in safety training for more than ten. You can follow Jeff at LinkedIn as well.

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