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Based on: Industry Standards and Best Practices

Languages: English

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Battery Types and Charging Theory

Training Time: 23 minutes

This course discusses multiple types of batteries and the theory of battery charging. It will cover the chemical action of charging, charging limitations, voltage and current sources, charge rates, and battery temperature.

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The charge time of a sealed lead-acid battery is 12-16 hours (up to 36 hours for larger capacity batteries).

The charge time of a sealed lead-acid battery is 12-16 hours (up to 36 hours for larger capacity batteries).

Temperature is monitored to determine the state of charge in many constant voltage chargers as the current slows when the battery nears full charge.

Temperature is monitored to determine the state of charge in many constant voltage chargers as the current slows when the battery nears full charge.

The capacity of a battery is the amount of current a battery can deliver in one hour to a specific resistance load.

The capacity of a battery is the amount of current a battery can deliver in one hour to a specific resistance load.

Key Topics Covered in This Course

  • Types of batteries
  • Chemical action of charging
  • Charging limitations
  • Voltage and current sources
  • Charge rates
  • Battery temperature
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Battery Types and Charging Theory FAQs

What is the difference between lead-acid and nickel-based batteries?
The charge algorithm for lead-acid batteries is similar to that of lithium-ion, but differs from nickel-based chemistries in that voltage rather than current limiting is used. Lead-acid also cannot be fully charged as quickly as nickel or lithium-based systems.

How long does it take to chard a lithium ion battery and how is it obtained?
The charge time of most chargers is about 3 hours. Full charge is attained after the voltage threshold has been reached and the current has dropped to 3% of the rated current or has leveled off.

What is the chemical action that takes place when a battery is charging?
A battery provides energy through a chemical reaction called oxidation. This reaction occurs during the discharge mode. The anode provides electrons and generates positive ions. The cathode accepts electrons and generates negative ions. The separator will not allow electrons to flow through it, so the electrons go to the external circuit. During the charging process, the positive terminal becomes the anode and the negative terminal becomes the cathode. Electrons are fed back into the battery during the charge cycle.

What are the two main methods used to charge batteries?
The two main methods used to charge batteries are constant current charging and constant voltage charging. The method used depends on the characteristics of the battery. In constant voltage charging, the charger voltage is held constant. The amount of current drawn by the battery will depend on its state of charge. As the battery becomes charged, it will draw less current, and the battery voltage will increase slightly. In constant current charging, the current to the battery is held constant, and the voltage is allowed to fluctuate.

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