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Based on: Industry Standards and Best Practices

Languages: English

Sample Transcript

As part of the black liquor combustion process, recovery boilers and smelt dissolving tanks produce pollutants, including, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, total reduced sulfur compounds, and sulfur dioxide. All of these pollutants, except particulates, can be monitored by continuous emission monitoring instrumentation. Particulates require manual stack testing. Other gasses, such as the noncondensable gasses, NCGs previously mentioned, may also be directed to and burned in recovery boilers.

Air Emissions Monitoring Basics

Training Time: 20 minutes

Pulp and paper mills discharge pollutants to the atmosphere from point sources during the manufacturing processes. Owners and operators of these mills are often required by law to obtain permits to discharge these pollutants. Government issued permits require emissions monitoring of the different point sources in mills to assure protection of human health and the environment. This module describes the most common monitored air emission pollutants in pulp and paper mills and continuous emission monitoring, predictive emission monitoring, and manual stack testing.

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Most air based emissions can be monitored continuously by analyzers at the source.

Most air based emissions can be monitored continuously by analyzers at the source.

Some tests involve manually connecting and operating sampling  instrumentation.

Some tests involve manually connecting and operating sampling instrumentation.

Sometimes emission values are predicted using  mathematical models and production data.

Sometimes emission values are predicted using mathematical models and production data.

Learning Objectives

  • List the major point sources for air pollutant emissions in pulp and paper mills
  • List the most common monitored air emission pollutants in pulp and paper mills
  • Describe continuous emission monitoring, predictive emission monitoring, and manual stack testing
  • Identify the importance of instrumentation calibration
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Air Emissions Monitoring Basics FAQs

What are some of the ""point sources"" in a kraft pulp mill?
Air emissions come from recovery boilers, power boilers, lime kilns and smelt dissolving tanks.

What are some commonly monitored air emissions?
Commonly monitored compounds include sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and particulates.

How is a total emission rate for a given pollutant calculated?
A total stack flow rate, moisture content and average concentration of the pollutant can be used to calculate the total emission rate.

How does predictive emission monitoring work?
Predicitive emission monitoring involves inputting easily available production data such as flows, temperatures and pressures into a mathematical model which outputs a difficult or impossible to measure emission value.

What common emission value is usually obtained by manual testing?
Particulate tests are often done by sampling a known volume of stack gas through a filter to manually determine that amount of particulate.

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